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The Cerro Rico, also known as Potosí hill, and in Quechua as Sumaj Orcko or 'beautiful hill' is a mountain of the Andes located in the department of Potosí. Silver production from Cerro Rico, was universally held by that in colonial times was the most important silver veins of the world. It has an approximate altitude of about 4800 meters above sea level. A version of History indicates that the silver veins were discovered by chance, one night in 1545, by a Quechua pastor named Diego Huallpa , who was lost while returning with his herd of llamas.

The immense wealth of Cerro Rico and the intense exploitation to which the Spaniards subjected it made the city grow in an amazing way. The immense wealth of Cerro Rico made the city of Potosí one of the most populous in the world during the Colony.